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450kg 600kg 750kg 1200kg 2000kg - is there a good description somewhere?

Can anyone summarise the various categories?

I know for example that below 1200kg can be ELA1 on which all maintenance can be done by a freelance EASA66 engineer.

Administrator
Shoreham EGKA, United Kingdom

A good question! The anwer (if a complete answer can be formulated) must be elaborate, I’ll try and make a beginning.

1) EASA
===
a) ultralight
-) single-seater up to 330 kg
-) two-seater up to 450 kg
-) +5% with ballistics
-) +10% for seaplanes/amphibians
b) LSA
c) non-complex
c1) ELA1 up to 1200 kg
c2) ELA2 up to 2000 kg
c9) 2000-5700 kg
d) complex
from 5700 kg OR if 19 or more pax seats OR if powered by jet engines or more than one turboprop

2) FAA
…..

3) ……

EBZH Kiewit, Belgium

At least some of them, only from EASA’s POV and just aeroplanes.

From Commission Regulation (EU) No 748/2012

‘ELA1 aircraft’ means the following manned European Light Aircraft:
(i) an aeroplane with a Maximum Take-off Mass (MTOM) of 1 200 kg or less that is not classified as complex motor-powered aircraft;


‘ELA2 aircraft’ means the following manned European Light Aircraft:
(i) an aeroplane with a Maximum Take-off Mass (MTOM) of 2 000 kg or less that is not classified as complex motor-powered aircraft;

From Regulation (EC) No 216/2008

‘complex motor-powered aircraft’ shall mean:
(i) an aeroplane:
— with a maximum certificated take-off mass exceeding 5 700 kg, or
— certificated for a maximum passenger seating configuration of more than nineteen, or
— certificated for operation with a minimum crew of at least two pilots, or
— equipped with (a) turbojet engine(s) or more than one turboprop engine, or

These we call ultralights (Brits call them microlights):

ANNEX II

(e) aeroplanes, helicopters and powered parachutes having no more than two seats, a maximum take-off mass (MTOM), as recorded by the Member States, of no more than:

(i) 300 kg for a land plane/helicopter, single-seater; or
(ii) 450 kg for a land plane/helicopter, two-seater; or
(iii) 330 kg for an amphibian or floatplane/helicopter single-seater; or
(iv) 495 kg for an amphibian or floatplane/helicopter two-seater, provided that, where operating both as a floatplane/helicopter and as a land plane/ helicopter, it falls below both MTOM limits, as appropriate;
(v) 472,5 kg for a land plane, two-seater equipped with an airframe mounted total recovery parachute system;
(vi) 315 kg for a land plane single-seater equipped with an airframe mounted total recovery parachute system;

and, for aeroplanes, having the stall speed or the minimum steady flight speed in landing configuration not exceeding 35 knots calibrated air speed (CAS);

From CS-LSA

This Certification Specification is applicable to Light Sport Aeroplanes to be approved for day-VFR only that meet all of the following criteria:
(a) A Maximum Take-Off Mass of not more than 600 kg for aeroplanes not intended to be operated on water or 650 kg for aeroplanes intended to be operated on water.
(b) A maximum stalling speed in the landing configuration (VS0) of not more than 83 km/h (45 knots) CAS at the aircraft’s maximum certificated Take-Off Mass and most critical centre of gravity.
(c) A maximum seating capacity of no more than two persons, including the pilot.
(d) A single, non-turbine engine or electric propulsion unit fitted with a propeller.
(e) A non-pressurised cabin.

From CS-VLA

This airworthiness code is applicable to aeroplanes with a single engine (spark- or compression-ignition) having not more than two seats, with a Maximum Certificated Take-off Weight of not more than 750 kg and a stalling speed in the landing configuration of not more than 83 km/h (45 knots) (CAS), to be approved for day-VFR only. (See AMC VLA 1).

There are some exceptions. AFAIK VLAs can be approved for night-VFR and DV20/ DA20 has MTOW of 800 kg, don’t know where those are buried (well, I have an idea where to look, just don’t want to ). There was a proposal about giving these to everyone.

Last Edited by Martin at 24 Mar 18:45

Is the above ANNEX II correct? For example a Spitfire is Annex II, AFAIK. Or is there a separate Annex II category for ultralights?

Many years ago somebody told me “microlight” or “microlite” was a trade name, and “ultralight” was correct.

What is leading people to say LSA or VLA are dead?

Isn’t there a LSA or VLA in the USA also but meaning something else?

Administrator
Shoreham EGKA, United Kingdom

Peter wrote:

Is the above ANNEX II correct? For example a Spitfire is Annex II, AFAIK. Or is there a separate Annex II category for ultralights?

As you can see I only quoted point (e) which deals with ultralights. Historic aircraft are IIRC (a). Replicas are I think (h). Home-builds (c). I originally wanted to put the whole Annex II in here (and other things) but in the end I deleted a whole lot of it. I kept the most relevant bits and placed ellipses as appropriate.

Many years ago somebody told me “microlight” or “microlite” was a trade name, and “ultralight” was correct.

I heard “microlights” used by people from the UK a lot. I would say it’s prevalent (as far as what I encountered goes).

Isn’t there a LSA or VLA in the USA also but meaning something else?

They definitely have LSA (weight limit should be the same, not sure about other differences). And they accepted VLA AFAIK (don’t know what are the practical implications). But I know very little about this which is why I stuck with EASA.

Last Edited by Martin at 24 Mar 19:53

Can someone explain why e.g. CS-LSA is derided all the time, as e.g. here ?

I also believe some smaller but hi-perf homebuilts e.g. Lancair 320 are close to 750kg (764 actually for that one according to wiki). Does that weight have any meaning, in the USA or here? I don’t think it has any meaning in the USA because homebuilts there can be any size – turboprops, etc.

Administrator
Shoreham EGKA, United Kingdom

Peter wrote:

I also believe some smaller but hi-perf homebuilts e.g. Lancair 320 are close to 750kg (764 actually for that one according to wiki). Does that weight have any meaning, in the USA or here? I don’t think it has any meaning in the USA because homebuilts there can be any size – turboprops, etc.

There are no weight limits for FAA Experimental Amateur Built aircraft. There are weight limits for US Light Sport aircraft (1320 lbs = 600 Kg gross or 1420 lbs for seaplanes) and for US ultralights, which are not otherwise licensed or regulated (under 254 lbs empty, excluding any floats or safety devices)

(The other categories of light aircraft and weight limits mentioned here are not present in US regulation)

Last Edited by Silvaire at 25 Mar 14:19

Peter wrote:

Can someone explain why e.g. CS-LSA is derided all the time, as e.g. here ?

You’ll have to ask LeSving why he bangs on it. My guess would be it has to do with maintenance (who can do it, which parts can be used, what paperwork they need, who can repair them, that sort of thing) and possibly what equipment can be installed (to meet legal requirements). I know very little about LSAs.

Peter wrote:

Does that weight have any meaning, in the USA or here?

Homebuilds (aircraft that fall under Annex II (c)) are outside of EASA’s purview. Whether it has any meaning, would depend on national regulations.

Last Edited by Martin at 25 Mar 14:17

Peter wrote:

I also believe some smaller but hi-perf homebuilts e.g. Lancair 320 are close to 750kg (764 actually for that one according to wiki). Does that weight have any meaning, in the USA or here?

Experimental homebuilts are outside of EASA as mentioned above. In Norway the MTOW is 2000 kg, but it’s not set in stone. Some experimental classic jets (although not homebuilt, but still experimental certified) are more than 2000 kg. I don’t think the authority will allow that you actually build something bigger than 2000 kg though, not as a pure amateur project in your garage at least. 2000 kg (4400 lbs) is a huge plane, single TP size. I think in Denmark it is even higher 2700 kg or something.

Peter wrote:

Can someone explain why e.g. CS-LSA is derided all the time, as e.g. here ?

Have you seen many CS-LSA around? There is your answer.

ENVA ENOP ENMO, Norway

LAA aircraft up to 1136KG according to TL1.07

Near Luton
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